Since its founding in 1857, the Chicago Academy of Sciences / Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum has counted an incredible array of notable scientists and educators among those who have contributed to its collection and have led the institution. Here are just a few of the notable people from its history.
Elizabeth Emerson Atwater (1812 - 1878)
Elizabeth Emerson Atwater, a noted naturalist and collector, willed her collection to the Chicago Academy of Sciences. These items, some thirty boxes of plants, shells, minerals and cultural artifacts, remain a part of the Academy’s collection to this day.
Atwater developed her interest in botany while attending boarding school in Troy, New York where the study of plants was part of the standard curriculum since it was an activity that a “proper” lady could take with her wherever she went. She married Samuel T. Atwater in 1839 and in 1856 the couple moved to Chicago, where she connected with the Chicago Academy of Sciences.
She deposited most of her collection at that time with the Academy for safe keeping at the urging of Academy director Dr. William Stimpson, but unfortunately her entire collection was destroyed, along with the rest of the Academy’s holdings, during the Great Chicago Fire in 1871.
Although her health did not allow her to travel extensively, she personally collected on all of her trips and her friends abroad sent her items as well. She and her husband traveled to California regularly and on one particular trip they stopped in Yellowstone National Park. She collected 2,000 specimens on this journey, one of which was later named as a new species of lichen, Bryum atwateriae.
William J. Beecher (1914 - 2002)
William J. Beecher, PhD, a visionary science educator and influential ornithologist, was director of the Chicago Academy of Sciences from 1958-1983. He revamped the museum’s exhibition spaces to be more inviting and informative. Beecher was also active in the community promoting practices that would help reduce the number of bird deaths due to window collisions, such as dimming the lights in downtown buildings during migration periods. He even invented his own photographic equipment, like the binocular camera, to capture better photographs during his birding expeditions.
Perhaps his greatest legacy for the Academy was his passionate commitment to develop educational programming to encourage budding zoologists. He implemented a “Science Seminar and Workshop Program” in 1959 that created science clubs in the fields of astronomy, biology, geology, microscopy, ornithology and ultimately herpetology and chemistry. The target audience for these clubs was high school children and teachers, but it reached a more diverse audience due to the quality of the lecturers and the enthusiasm of the club members. This effort morphed into the Chicago Junior Academy of Sciences in the mid-1960s. The Junior Academy provided not only scientific instruction for high school students, but specific, hands-on employment and experience at the museum where they learned about museum operations, exhibit design and taxidermy.
Robert Kennicott (1835 - 1866)
Motivated by his experience studying and working at the Smithsonian Institution, Robert Kennicott sought to establish Midwest-based natural history organizations that would develop similar reputations in the Midwest. In 1857, he realized his dream when he co-founded the Chicago Academy of Sciences and was appointed director (president). He simultaneously worked toward establishing a museum of natural science at Northwestern University.
Kennicott, an avid naturalist and adventurer, studied ornithology (birds), mammalogy (mammals), herpetology (reptiles and amphibians), and ichthyology (fish) and collected specimens across North America at a time when Chicago was the western-most edge of developed areas in the U.S.
In 1859, Kennicott embarked on a three-year exploration of the Arctic North America. Later, in 1865 he set out on an expedition to explore the possibility an overland route to Europe via Alaska and Siberia for the Western Union Telegraph Company, which provided the opportunity to collect specimens for the Smithsonian and the Academy. It turned out to be his last trip; Kennicott died on May 12, 1866. In another tragic twist of fate, the specimens that Kennicott collected for the Academy were destroyed by the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 with the rest of the Academy’s museum collections. Today, the Academy still has specimens collected by Kennicott, obtained through transfers from the Smithsonian and from specimens originally deposited with Northwestern and transferred later to the Academy.
Herman Silas Pepoon (1860 - 1941)
Herman Silas Pepoon's detailed record of the plant species found in the Chicago region, An Annotated Flora of the Chicago Area (1927), was the first local identification source for plants published by the Academy in almost 40 years. Pepoon, a physician, teacher, botanist, ecologist, and conservationist devoted his career to studying the plants and lands in Illinois and the Midwest.
After beginning his career as a practicing physician and serving as the Fulton County Fish Warden, he moved to the Chicago area in 1892 to take a position as a teacher and school physician at Lakeview High School.In addition to his teaching, Pepoon spent much of his free time exploring the Illinois landscape. He recorded all of the plant species that he encountered on his treks, keeping detailed maps and records, including drawings and photographs. Many of these are now housed within the manuscript collection in the Academy’s archives.
In 1909, he began teaching botanical classes for young people and local teachers at the Academy. He also led field trips and gave public lectures.
William Stimpson (1832 - 1872)
William Stimpson, PhD, was a noted malacologist and naturalist who lived during the 1800s and was a powerful force for obtaining collections and developing the scientific reputation of the Academy.
He led expeditions along the eastern coastline with funding from the Academy, including one to Florida with J.W. Velie, from which the Academy received all of the collected specimens. Tragically, the Academy’s entire museum collection, including Stimpson’s ongoing research for twenty years, was destroyed during the Great Chicago Fire in 1871. Stimpson’s resolve helped rebuild the institution and its scientific collections.
During his career, he studied with well-known malacologists William G. Binney at the Boston Society of Natural History and Louis Agassiz at Harvard University. In 1852, Stimpson was appointed as naturalist/zoologist with the North Pacific Exploring and Surveying Expedition and spent four years collecting thousands of mollusk and gastropod specimens throughout the North Pacific, including Japan, the Bering Strait, and Hong Kong. He kept notes and personal letters from the expedition, which are held in the Academy’s archives, that include descriptions and drawings of some of the specimens and sites he encountered.
Upon his return, he became the head of the Department of Invertebrates at the Smithsonian Institution, and began the process of arranging and describing his collection. In 1865 a good friend, Robert Kennicott, asked Stimpson to take over his duties at the Chicago Academy of Sciences while he was on an expedition. Stimpson accepted and became the curator and secretary of the Academy until November 1866 when he was elected to fill the position of director upon the death of his friend.