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  • How Many Legs Does a Caterpillar Have?

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    Created: 5/17/2017      Updated: 5/18/2017

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    Looking at this picture, you might conclude that caterpillars have 8 pairs of legs- three pairs in the front, four in the middle and one at the back (if you're a bit confused, the head of the caterpillar is on the left in this photo). But wait, aren't caterpillars insects? Don't insects have 6 legs, not 16?

    Like all insects, this caterpillar has only 6 legs. Note the different shape of the three pairs of legs near the caterpillar's head. They're the true legs. The remaining structures are not legs at all. They're protrusions from the caterpillar's abdomen called prolegs. Much like true legs, they help the caterpillar grip onto surfaces like twigs, and aid in locomotion.

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  • Why do Birds Fly in Formation?

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    Created: 5/16/2017      Updated: 5/17/2017

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    In this series, we'll be addressing some common questions from visitors and readers. Do you have a science question that has you stumped? Ask our museum scientists via our form here and we'll answer it on our blog!

    Today's Question:

    Why do birds fly in formation?

    If you've spent a year in the United States, then you've heard the honks and seen the distinctive v-shaped flying pattern of Canada geese. But geese aren't the only birds to fly in an orderly pattern: pelicans and ibises adopt the same v-shape when flying in flocks.[1] What do these birds have in common, and what benefit do they gain from flying in a "v" shape?

    Geese, pelicans, and ibises are examples of birds that migrate. Migration is the seasonal movement of animals in search of food sources or breeding grounds: geese fly south during the winter to find food and water; sea turtles travel between nesting sites on land and their feeding grounds on the coast; and college students return to their parents' homes in May when the cafeteria closes.

    Those aren't geese: these Eurasian Cranes also adopt a v-formation when migrating.[2]

    Migration over long distances requires a lot of energy, so when migrating it is a great advantage for animals to save energy however possible. Animals will need less food, and the migration will take less time. That's where the v-formation comes in handy: scientific studies have shown that geese flying in formation may spend only half as much energy than if they flew alone or in some other shape.[3] This is also why a squadron of jets will adopt the same v-shape: it takes less fuel for the aircraft to fly. Birds and jets are both able to gain extra lift by flying in the updraft that is created by the flyer in front of it.[1]

    Not all migrating birds fly in a v-shape: varieties of hummingbirds, finches, and sparrows all migrate,[4] but these birds are too small to gain an energy-saving benefit from flying in formation. Not all migrating birds even fly, for that matter: the flightless emu from Australia migrates too, but does so on foot. And no, migrating emus do not run in formation.[5]

    But wait, there's more: There are other flying formations that the classic “v”! When birds flock in large groups in the air, this is also a deliberate formation. It's a defense mechanism that protects against predators: every bird is safer when they're in the flock. It's difficult for a predator to single out an individual from the flock, and a bird that leaves the flock is more likely to be eaten by a predator.[6] The whole flock moves as one in order to protect every member. Starlings are well-known for their flocking behavior, and there is even a specific term -- a murmuration -- to describe a flock of starlings. It is absolutely worth watching this two-minute video from National Geographic to see a murmuration in action: 

    Kyle Schiber
    Nature Museum Volunteer

    [1] Yong, Ed. “Not Exactly Rocket Science, A Blog by Ed Yong”. Birds that Fly in a V Formation Use An Amazing Trick. Retrieved May 5, 2017, from http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2014/01/15/birds-that-fly-in-a-v-formation-use-an-amazing-trick/

    [2] https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Eurasian_Cranes_migrating_to_Meyghan_Salt_Lake.jpg

    By Hamid Hajihusseini (http://www.panoramio.com/photo/43585282) [CC BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

    [3] Cuttis, C.J. and Speakman, J.R. Energy Savings in Formation Flight of Pink-Footed Geese. Retrieved May 7, 2017 from http://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/189/1/251.full.pdf

    [4] The Nature Conservancy. “Managing Habitats for Migrating Land Birds in the Western Lake Erie Basin” (2008) https://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/northamerica/unitedstates/ohio/explore/bird-stopover-brochure.pdf

    [5] The Animal Corner (2017). Retrieved May 14, 2017 from https://animalcorner.co.uk/animals/emu/

    [6] Flight Plan. “How a Flock of Birds Can Fly and Move Together” (April, 2009) http://www.audubon.org/magazine/march-april-2009/how-flock-birds-can-fly-and-move-together


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  • Illinois Museums Advocacy Day 2017

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    Created: 4/25/2017      Updated: 4/26/2017

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    Today is an important day for museums and cultural institutions across the state of Illinois. Today is Illinois Museums Advocacy Day, and the Museums, Arts and Cultural Enhancement committee chaired by State Representative Camille Lilly – is having a subject matter hearing on the importance of museum funding and community support. We're proud to be a participant in today's hearing, and are honored that Representative Lilly and other committee members are using today to fight for museums and recognize the impact we have on our communities.

    Earlier this year, we were honored to be named a finalist for the National Medal for Museum and Library Service, the nation’s highest honor awarded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services. It’s truly an honor to be nominated for an award that recognizes museums and libraries that have made extraordinary contributions to their communities, and we were thrilled to be given the chance to highlight some of that work.

    Our staff consists of a variety of professionals – from scientists and educators to beekeepers and horticulturists – and it has been that way since we were originally founded 160 years ago. The Academy opened in 1857 and our founders dreamed it could be a place for people to discover and connect with the beauty of the land, and to protect the open lands they cherished. We’ve become that and so much more. In fact, for 160 years we’ve been at the forefront of scientific research and environmental studies and maintain a collection filled with Illinois natural history specimens – all of which tell a critical part of our state’s story.

    The Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum is an essential part of Chicago’s cultural and education community and a fun place to visit. We bring nature and science to an urban population that is often detached from nature and natural areas. We provide an enticing window into an urban nature sanctuary, a place to experience the sights and sounds of authentic nature that can never be replicated on a computer.

    We understand the importance of nature to our quality of life, so we allocate our resources with a priority on education  our biggest department. In the Museum and out in the classrooms throughout underserved schools, we work directly with students and teachers to help make nature and science alive. This is particularly critical since STEM education is a national priority.

    When we take our customized programs into schools, we bring specimens from our one-of-a-kind, nearly 400,000 piece collection, the definitive gathering of our city and region’s natural history. Students also see the collection up close on field trips.

    We take on challenging topics and help people understand how nature and people affect one another. Our self-curated, fact-based exhibits bring people closer to nature and encourage dialogue on pressing topics such as climate change. For example, our newest exhibit Our House, helps people think about how our choices affect the environment and what actions they can take as a family to live more sustainably. Meanwhile, our scientists’ pioneering conservation efforts are giving rare and endangered species such as the Blanding’s Turtle, the Rusty Patched Bumblebee, and the Smooth Green Snake a new lease on life, adding diversity to our ecosystem.

    These are just a few of the ways we touch the communities around us, experiences that only we can provide. We’re proud that Representative Lilly and Museums, Arts and Cultural Enhancement committee are recognizing and fighting on behalf of museums today, and we hope that you will, too.

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  • We March for Science

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    Created: 4/20/2017      Updated: 4/20/2017

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    I often go for a long bike ride on Saturdays, but this weekend I’m trading my cycling gear for marching boots.

    I am proud and honored to lead a team of Chicago Academy of Sciences / Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum staff and volunteers at Saturday’s March for Science. How appropriate is it, on Earth Day, to march in solidarity with scientists and science teachers, including those on our staff! Scientists and science teachers are on the front lines in helping the public understand and appreciate the wonders of nature and science.

    Our largest department at the Museum is education, and for good reason. Now, more than ever, it is critical to provide science-based data, facts and science education programs so that everyone can understand how our actions affect nature and the environment on which we all depend for life.

    And as Chicago’s oldest museum, we’ve been at the forefront of teaching and connecting people to nature and science for 160 years. In fact, our educators provide more hours of hands-on education to students than any museum in Chicago.

    That’s why we developed our newest exhibit, Our House: Rethinking Home in a Changing Climate, which helps people think about how our choices affect the environment.

    In celebration of this Earth Day, I encourage families to simply have a discussion about nature and the environment and how they are both critical to our health and overall wellbeing. Take a moment to step outside and observe all the nature that surrounds us, right here in our urban area. If you and your family look for simple ways to connect more with the outdoors, it is amazing how those decisions will grow and harvest with time.

     “The aim of science is to discover and illuminate truth. And that, I take it, is the aim of literature, whether biography or history... It seems to me, then, that there can be no separate literature of science.” - Rachel Carson

    On that note, we encourage your participation at the March for Science! Please do say hello to our team if you see us proudly carrying Nature Museum signs. And, of course, the Nature Museum is open all day on Earth Day, so feel free to stop by throughout the day or after the march.

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  • Marching for Science this Earth Day

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    Tags: march for science

    Created: 4/7/2017      Updated: 4/8/2017

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    Collage of museum staff and visitor

    As Chicago’s oldest museum, the Chicago Academy of Sciences/Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum has been at the forefront of connecting people in our city and region to nature and science since 1857.
     
    We celebrate nature and science every day at the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, but never more so than on April 22. In addition to Earth Day, April 22 is also the international March for Science, and Chicago is one of more than 300 cities that will have its own March. It’s a chance to support scientists and science teachers throughout the world, including our own Museum scientists, science educators and volunteers.
     
    Many members of our team – staff and volunteers – will participate in the March For Science. Anyone is able to join the March – and we would welcome your participation. Because of the expected size of the March, we are not organizing an official Nature Museum group – but please say hi if you see our staff, volunteers and Trustees among the participants proudly carrying Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum signs.
     
    For 160 years, the Chicago Academy of Sciences/Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum has been passionate advocates for the importance of science and nature education. From founder Robert Kennicott to former Academy president Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin, one of the first scientists to highlight carbon dioxide’s role in regulating the planet’s temperature, to the work of our scientists in the field and our educators in the classroom—this is who we are and what we do.
     
    The Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum will be open, as usual, on Earth Day -  so feel free to stop by throughout the day, or after the March.
     
    You can experience the new exhibit Our House: Rethinking Home in a Changing Climate, visit the Judy Istock Butterfly Haven, enjoy some fresh air on our outdoor exhibit Nature Trails and reflect on and nurture your family’s connection and appreciation of nature and science.

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  • Learn About Butterflies Day - The Regal Fritillary

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    Created: 3/14/2017      Updated: 3/14/2017

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    Today is #LearnAboutButterfliesDay! The Judy Istock Butterfly Haven is a great place to learn about all types of exotic butterflies and moths (especially on a cold, snowy day like today!), but what about our native butterflies? Check out this video to all about one of our native species, and the work our scientists do with this species!

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  • A #DayofFacts

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    Created: 3/1/2017      Updated: 3/1/2017

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    We were proud to participate in the first ever Day of Facts on February 17. On that day, 250 organizations across the US and around the world used social media to educate and engage their followers on areas ranging from STEM education to conservation. During that time we shared information about our history, our founders, our education programs, our conservation research, and our upcoming exhibit.

    You can check out all of our #DayofFacts posts by checking out our Storify page below.

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  • Why Do Trees Have Knots?

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    Created: 2/6/2017      Updated: 3/3/2017

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    In this series, we'll be addressing some common questions from visitors and readers. Do you have a science question that has you stumped? Ask our museum scientists via our form here and we'll answer it on our blog!

    Today's Question:

    Why do trees have knots?

    Answer:

    Tree knots are also known as "burls". Burls form on the outside of trees as a reaction to stress. Trees don't have strict parents or follow politics, so what stress could trees possibly have?

    Dozens of burls on a centuries-old cypress tree at the Beijing Temple of Confucius in China [1]

    Stress, to trees, is life-threatening. Stress is injury from an axe or chainsaw. Stress is infection from insects or bacteria. Stress is extreme flooding or drought.[2] A burl is formed as a last-ditch effort to save the tree's life after an injury or infection. A burl protects a tree like a scar.

    A burl can do more than seal off a wound like a scar. Redwoods use burls for self-defense like other trees, but redwood burls can actually sprout and create new redwood trees.[3] This is an important part of the redwood life cycle: if a redwood thinks that it may die from injury or disease, the redwood creates burls that can sprout many more redwoods in its place.

    It's knot not all smooth sailing once the tree has protected itself with a burl. Wood from a burl is prized by woodworkers for its intricate design, and some will pay top dollar for it. Burl hunters use saws to hack the burl off, giving the tree a fresh wound. Poachers will even steal redwood burls from national forests, resorting, at times, to killing the tree.[4]

    A park ranger in Redwood National Park inspects a redwood tree attacked by poachers for its burl [5]

    Burls aren't the only reaction that trees have as a response to stress. Nature can get creative. Acacia trees in Africa get stressed when antelope or giraffes start eating the tree's leaves. The acacia tree, in defense, releases bitter chemicals called tannins that make the leaves too bitter to eat. That's not all: the tannins are released into the air and alert other acacia trees nearby to begin producing tannins as well. Smart giraffes know to eat trees that are downwind first, so as not to alert other trees nearby![6]

    All living things undergo stress--it's just part of being alive. Every living organism deals with stress in its own way. That being said, if your stress is giving you knots, see a doctor. I'm a blog author, not a physician. Seek professional advice.

    Kyle Schiber
    Nature Museum Volunteer

    [1] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABroussins_sur_un_cypr%C3%A8s.jpg, By Laurent Bélanger (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

    [2] Feeley, Tivon. Iowa State University. (23 October, 2007) Retrieved January 31, 2017, from http://www.extension.iastate.edu/news/2007/oct/071901.htm

    [3] Redwood National and State Parks. Retrieved February 1, 2017 from  https://www.nps.gov/redw/planyourvisit/upload/Redwood_Burl_Final.pdf

    [4] Brown, Patricia Leigh. Poachers Attack Beloved Elders of California, Its Redwoods. (8 April, 2014) Retrieved January 30, 2017 from  https://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/09/us/poachers-attack-beloved-elders-of-california-its-redwoods.html

    [5] Bomke, Jeff. National Park Service. (28 February, 2014) Retrieved February 1, 2017, from https://www.nps.gov/redw/learn/news/newton-drury-parkway-will-be-closed-at-night-due-to-increased-wood-poaching.htm

    [6] Hughes, Sylvia. Antelope activate the acacia’s alarm system. (29 September, 1990) Retrieved February 3, 2017, from  https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg12717361-200-antelope-activate-the-acacias-alarm-system/



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  • Where Do Butterflies Go At Night?

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    Created: 1/6/2017      Updated: 3/3/2017

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    In this series, we'll be addressing some common questions from visitors and readers. Do you have a science question that has you stumped? Ask our museum scientists via our form here and we'll answer it on our blog!

    Today's Question:

    Where do butterflies go at night?

    The Short Answer:

    Simple, right? Butterflies are active during the day, so at night they find a hiding place and go to sleep. In the same way, moths are active at night and during the day moths hide and rest.

    Animals that sleep during the night, like most butterflies, are diurnal. Animals that sleep during the day, like most moths, are nocturnal

    Never seen a sleeping butterfly? A sleeping butterfly would make an easy meal for a nocturnal predator! If you're dedicated to finding one, check under leaves, in between rocks, or even between blades of grass.[1] Or maybe, because most butterflies only live for a month or two, you should just leave them be: they only get a few dozen sleeps!

    If only it were that simple! I would have had less to write and you would have had less to read.

    "Most?" I can hear you saying, "Why do you keep saying 'most'? Aren't moths the ones that fly at night and butterflies the ones that sleep at night?"

    And you would be correct, most of the time.

    The reality is, nature is incredibly diverse. There are over 17,500 species of butterfly and 160,000 species of moth.[2] Ten percent of all known species of organisms are either butterflies or moths![3] Biologists can create simple rules, like "butterflies fly during the day", but these rules are bound to have exceptions because of the sheer number of species involved. As an experiment, what simple rules could you create to define what separates every single cat from every single dog? Size? Ear shape? Tail length? It's not so easy!

    The Long(er) Answer:

    It wouldn't be right to give so many "mosts" without giving examples. Let's get to it.

    There is a family of butterflies called Hedylidae known as the "American moth-butterflies" that sleeps during the day and is active at night.[4] There is a genus of moth, Hemaris, that resembles bumblebees or hummingbirds. These moths are active during the day and sleep at night.[5] 

    Hummingbird? No hummingbird I've ever seen has had antennae. This is a hummingbird hawk moth![6]

    Most butterflies emerge from a chrysalis. Not so for the family of butterflies called Parnassius, which emerge from a loose, silk cocoon.[7] Meanwhile, the tropical hawk moths of the family Sphingidae don't emerge from a cocoon at all: their pupas are unwrapped and exposed and the adult moths emerge from underground. How about a moth that wraps itself like a butterfly? Nature has those too: the gypsy moth, an invasive species to the northeast United States, has a pupal stage that looks much more like a chrysalis than a cocoon.

    Cocoon? Chrysalis? Tough to tell, but it's definitely not hatching a butterfly: this is the pupa of the gypsy moth.[8]

    Most butterflies only live as adult butterflies for a few months. This is especially true for tropical butterflies like the ones showcased in the Judy Istock Butterfly Haven. Butterfly species that must survive a cold winter, like the Illinois-native monarch butterfly, have an adult phase that lives long enough to migrate south to Mexico in the fall and return home to the central United States in the spring.[9]

    So. Where do butterflies go at night? To sleep. But most biologists will give you a much longer answer that most people agree goes a little too far.

    Kyle Schiber
    Nature Museum Volunteer

     

    [1] North American Butterfly Association. (2016) Butterfly Questions and Answers. Retrieved December 18, 2016, from http://www.naba.org/qanda.html

    [2] Smithsonian Institution. (2016) Bug Info: Moths. Retrieved December 19, 2016, from https://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmnh/buginfo/moths.htm

    [3] Mallet, Jim. (19, Jan 2014) The Lepidoptera Taxome Project Draft Proposals and Information. Retrieved January 2, 2017 from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/taxome/

    [4] Scoble, Malcolm J. and Aiello, Annette. (1990) Moth-like butterflies (Hedylidae: Lepidoptera): a summary, with comments on the egg. Retrieved December 18, 2016 from http://www.stri.si.edu/sites/publications/PDFs/Aiello_Scoble%20&%20Aiello%20.pdf

    [5] Taraglia, Elena. (15, July 2015) Year of the Sphingidae – Diurnal Moths. Retrieved December 20, 2016 from http://nationalmothweek.org/2015/07/15/year-of-the-sphingidae-diurnal-moths/

    [6] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AIC_Macroglossum_stellatarum1.JPG, By IronChris (Own work) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

    [7] Butterflies and Moths of North America. (2016) Attributes of Parnassius Clodius. Retrieved December 20, 2016 from http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/species/Parnassius-clodius

    [8] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ALymantria_dispar_-_growth_A_-_07_-_chrysalis_(2009-06-25).jpg, by ©entomart [Attribution], via Wikimedia Commons

    [9] Monarch Joint Venture. (2016) Monarch Migration. Retrieved January 2, 2017 from http://monarchjointventure.org/monarch-biology/monarch-migration/

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  • Is Corn a Grass?

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    Created: 12/5/2016      Updated: 3/3/2017

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    In this new series, we'll be addressing some common questions from visitors and readers. Do you have a science question that has you stumped? Ask our museum scientists via our form here and we'll answer it on our blog!

    Today's Question:

    Is corn a grass?

    The Short Answer:

    A cob of corn may not resemble the green grass growing in your lawn, but if you ask any biologist or botanist, they will tell you that yes, the corn plant is a grass!

     Ears of corn

    Photo courtesy of Meg Stewart (CC BY-SA 2.0)

    How can that be? First, biologists study the features of plants and animals. Then, biologists create groups of plants and animals that have the same features. This science of grouping similar plants and animals together is called taxonomy. For example, the science of taxonomy says that "mammals" are animals that have fur, give live birth to babies, and feed their babies with milk. In taxonomy, a "grass" refers to a specific group of plants. Grasses have leaves that grow around the stem, and each leaf has a central “vein” that helps support the leaf. Grasses have flowers at the top of their stem in a shape called a "spikelet," and those flowers do not have petals.[1] Using that definition from taxonomy, both lawn grass and the corn plant are grass! When you compare corn and lawn grass like a botanist, you can see how the two plants are related. In the pictures of grass[6] and corn[7] below, what similarities do you see?

    Lawn Grass                                                  Corn

    What other groups of animals or plants can you think of? What features do they have in common?

    If you really want to get confused, ask a botanist about fruits: a botanist will tell you that cucumbers, pumpkins, peanuts, and chili peppers are all fruits! The lesson is, when a botanist offers you a fruit salad, make sure you get a list of ingredients before you accept.

    The Long(er) Answer:

    The original corn plant does resemble a wild grass plant, but thousands of years of domestication by the native peoples of central Mexico have turned a wild, small-seeded grass known as teosinte into the familiar plant we know today. The kernels of early corn were either ground into a rough flour, or soaked in water, drained, and heated over a fire.

    Modern corn is so unlike its genetic predecessor that the origin of corn was a complete mystery to archaeologists until the 1930s when a graduate student named George Beadle experimentally determined the connection between teosinte and the modern corn plant.[2] Even still, corn and teosinte look so different that it took decades longer for the rest of the scientific community to agree with these experimental results!

    Maybe the mystery of corn's origin would have been solved sooner had etymologists and botanists been comparing notes: the Aztec word for teosinte, teocentli, means "God's ear of corn," and teosinte is known in some regions of Mexico as madre de maiz or "mother of corn"![3]

    The corn we grow today has been so selectively bred and utterly domesticated that corn cannot even survive without humans to plant it into the ground: if a cob of corn kernels falls to the ground and germinates, the cluster of seeds is so dense that they compete against each other for water and nutrients and few seedlings grow to maturity. In only a few generations without human intervention, modern corn would become extinct.[3]

    But other cereal crops like wheat, barley, and oats still grow on plants that still obviously look like grass, and those crops have a history of domestication as far back as corn. Why is corn unique?

    It's important to remember that small genetic mutations can create profound changes in an organism[4] It's possible that during domestication, random mutations occurred in early corn plants that did not randomly occur in other cereal crops. It's also possible that through genetic engineering, other cereal crops could be created with much larger grains as well. Scientists in Britain claim to have done just that with wheat, claiming to have created a strain of wheat with 40% greater yield than common wheat.[5]

    So, that’s that: corn isn’t a vegetable (botanically), but a wonder grass that feeds the western world. The only question that remains is, corn-fed beef or grass-fed beef: what’s really the difference?

    Kyle Schiber
    Nature Museum Volunteer

    [1] Eckardt, Nancy A. (2004) What Makes a Grass? DROOPING LEAF Influences Flower and Leaf Development in Rice. Retrieved December 03, 2016, from http://www.plantcell.org/content/16/2/291.full

    [2] Carroll, Sean B. (2010) Tracking the Ancestry of Corn Back 9,000 Years. Retrieved December 03, 2016, from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/25/science/25creature.html

    [3] Beadle, George W. (1980) The Ancestry of Corn. Retrieved December 03, 2016, from http://users.clas.ufl.edu/dcgrove/mexarchreadings/corn.pdf

    [4] Genetic Science Learning Center. (2013, July 1) Evolution of Corn. Retrieved December 03, 2016, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/selection/corn/

    [5] Knapton, Sarah. (2016, November 4) Genetically modified wheat could be grown in Britain from next spring. Retrieved December 04, 2016, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2016/11/04/genetically-modified-wheat-could-be-grown-in-britain-from-next-s/

    [6] https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Grassy_grass_plant.svg, By Kelvinsong (Own work) [CC BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

    [7] https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Maize_plant_diagram.svg, By LadyofHats (Own work) [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons, edited to enlarge text

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